Remote and Rural Practice

The Transition to Rural and Remote Practice Toolkit is currently under review and content may be out of date. The toolkit will be updated following the review.

The philosophies that drive remote and rural practice and the way services are delivered within these settings often vary from those applied within a larger metropolitan or urban setting.

This section describes some of the opportunities and challenges of remote and rural allied health practice, and provides an introduction to the philosophy of Primary Health Care and some of the ways services are delivered in remote and rural practice. Read through the pages and consider each of the identified topics influences your practice.

Opportunities Remote and Rural Allied Health Practice

The Transition to Rural and Remote Practice Toolkit is currently under review and content may be out of date. The toolkit will be updated following the review.

The way that health is practiced in the metropolitan areas, rural settings and remote areas differ greatly. The features that distinguish remote and rural practice often become more prominent the more remote you become. The environment is different, as are the health issues encountered. The population is small, dispersed and in some places highly mobile, with significant variations in the health team and services accessible to the community.

These features, combined with the individual features of each community, create many opportunities for allied health professionals in remote and rural practice. Opportunities of remote and rural allied health practice, as identified by the Literature Review and Key Informant Interviews include:

 

Practice

  • Servicing populations with high health needs and a diverse health profile
  • Providing services in multiple contexts (beyond the hospital)
  • Connecting services to the community (greater community involvement)
  • Travel to provide services and see different parts of the country
  • Use of a range of different service delivery models
  • Use of new and advancing technologies to deliver health services (such as Telehealth)
  • Enhanced collaboration with other agencies and team members
  • Greater involvement in population health, public health and health promotion, with an increased primary health care focus
  • Working together with Aboriginal people in a culturally safe way, and developing your cultural safety
  • Delivering a wide range of services, across the continuum of care.

 

Professional

  • Developing wide range of professional skills
  • Greater self management skills such as time management and workload management
  • Earlier exposure to supervision of others including students and support workers
  • Enhanced cultural safety skills
  • Advanced communication skills
  • Greater team practice, including interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary practice
  • Increased autonomy in practice and decision-making
  • Ability to manage professional isolation and create professional networks
  • Working within, beyond and sharing your scope of practice
  • Working independently, in isolation or as a sole practitioner
  • Greater involvement in service planning, implementation and evaluation
  • Greater responsibility for caseload management and prioritisation/demand management
  • Strong self-reflection skills, knowing your limitations and ‘when to ask for help’.
  • High level of IT skills
  • Greater appreciation of confidentiality (due to remote/rural) challenges
  • Becoming flexible, innovative, adaptable and resourceful.

 

Personal

  • Chance to develop strong self-care and safety/survival skills, including first aide, safe driving and local knowledge.
  • Opportunity to become part of a community
  • Strong understanding of professional/personal boundaries

 

Remote and Rural Practice & You

  • What unique aspects of remote and rural practice have you already experienced?
  • Are there any features and opportunities you can further explore?
  • How can you make the most of the unique aspects of remote and rural practice?

Challenges of Remote and Rural Allied Health Practice

The Transition to Rural and Remote Practice Toolkit is currently under review and content may be out of date. The toolkit will be updated following the review.

Whilst remote and rural practice provides many opportunities it does present some challenges, especially those new to the community. These challenges are not experienced by all Allied health professionals, but are dependent on the individual and the context in which he/she practices. It is important to be aware of these potential challenges in order to put in place strategies to address them before they become an issue. This page aims to give you the tools and knowledge to address these challenges (and turn them into some fantastic opportunities).

Challenges of remote and rural allied health practice, as identified by the Literature Review and Key Informant Interviews include:

 

Practice

  • Diversity of clients, with a wide range of clinical presentations (the need to be a specialist generalist)
  • Lack of management support, including limited understanding of allied health services, skills, knowledge and roles
  • Inadequate resources and inappropriate infrastructure
  • Poor communication with the community (community engagement)
  • Lack of consistency in the organisational structure for allied health
  • Reduced access to same profession line management
  • Access to quality IT and communication systems.

 

Professional

  • Professional isolation due to reduced local access to peers and networks.
  • Staff shortages and lack of access to locums, potentially leading to long working hours and high workloads. This may lead to self-care issues
  • Limited support, including mentoring and adequate clinical supervision
  • Limited of access to professional development
  • Limited opportunity for career development
  • Inadequate or absent orientation
  • Inadequate preparation for remote or rural work
  • Under-represented of rural allied health professionals in professional organisations
  • Challenges to maintaining confidentiality
  • Difficulty translating training and evidence into remote and rural practice (including the lack of evidence and research specific to remote and rural contexts)
  • Lack of access to specialist support pathways
  • Unrealistic expectations.

 

Personal

  • Social isolation, including distance from family and friends and lack of social support
  • Lack of social and cultural facilities in the community
  • Risk of burnout, due to reduced self care
  • Lack of rural incentives
  • Working in a physical environment of climatic extremes (safety risks)
  • Blurring of personal and professional boundaries (Allied health professionals have a higher profile in the community both professionally and personally, and may even have overlapping roles)
  • Finding appropriate employment for partner or suitable education facilities for children.

 

Challenges & You

  • What challenges have you faced so far in your transition to remote and rural practice?
  • How can these challenges be turned into an opportunity?
  • Is there a section on this website that can help?
  • If not, speak to your manager, supervisors or colleagues. No doubt they have experienced similar challenges and may have some idea to help you.

Primary Health Care

The Transition to Rural and Remote Practice Toolkit is currently under review and content may be out of date. The toolkit will be updated following the review.

Primary Health Care is a key philosophical underpinning of remote and rural health care. We have created a learning module to help you develop your understanding of Primary Health Care in remote and rural allied health context. The module will take about 20 minutes to complete. Click on the below tab to access the module, which will open in a new window.

 

Primary Health Care Learning Package

 

Primary Health Care & You

After you have completed the learning module reflect on the following questions: 

  • Do you understand Primary Health Care in the context of remote and rural health care?
  • How do Primary Health care models influence your practice?

 

Useful Resources 

Service Delivery

The Transition to Rural and Remote Practice Toolkit is currently under review and content may be out of date. The toolkit will be updated following the review.

In remote and rural settings allied health services are often delivered in quite different ways, drawing on various service delivery models specific to the remote and rural context. Some of these strategies are employed in metropolitan or urban centres but have a particular relevance in remote and rural health service delivery, others are unique to remote and rural practice. 

Below are some of the service models that particularly relevant to working in a remote or rural practice setting.

Remote and Rural Outreach

In addition to office-based practice, many rural and remote allied health professionals also provide outreach services to surrounding areas.  Outreach service provision is unique to rural and remote practice and can present particular challenges and rewards.

We have created the below learning module to develop your understanding of outreach service delivery and to support you in your delivery of these services. The module will take between 30-40 minutes to complete. Click on the below tab to access the module, which will open in a new window.

 

Remote and Rural Outreach Learning Package

 

Outreach & You

Complete the learning module and think about:

  • What, if any, communities do you have responsibility for providing outreach services to?
  • What is each community like (demographics, health need, services)?
  • How are the services delivered?
  • How do outreach services change or impact service delivery and care?

We have also put together some tips to help you provide outreach services: Outreach Tips

 

Useful Resources

Telehealth

Telehealth is becoming an increasing popular tool in allied health service delivery in remote and rural settings. In short, Telehealth refers to the delivery of health-related services and information via telecommunications technologies. Telehealth involves the transmission of images, voice and data between two or more sites using telecommunications to provide health services such as clinical advice, consultation, education and training services.

Telehealth can be delivered through a variety of mediums, including telephone, videoconferencing, fax, emails, and computers for data/imaging, virtual reality, and tele-robotics.

 

Types of Telehealth

There are three key types of Telehealth:

  • Real-time Telehealth: In real-time Telehealth, a telecommunications link allows instantaneous interaction. Videoconferencing is the most utilised of this form of Telehealth.
  • Store & Forward: In store-and-forward Telehealth digital images, video, audio and clinical data are captured and ‘stored’ on a computer; then securely transmitted (‘forwarded’) to a clinic at another location where they are studied by relevant specialists. The opinion of the specialist is then transmitted back.
  • Remote monitoring: This involves the consistent, reliable and accurate remote monitoring of a patient's vital signs and predetermined health measures (e.g. blood pressure, heart rate, weight etc) . This is also called home Telehealth.

 

Benefits of Telehealth

The use of Telehealth has many benefits, particularly in a remote or rural setting. For the client, Telehealth improves access to clinical services closer to home.

For the clinician it increases access to: clients; professional development and education opportunities; specialist services. Telehealth increases the information exchange between inter-professional teams and enhances client care. It reduces the need for clinicians to travel, and provides savings in associated costs for travel and accommodation.

 

Allied Health Applications of Telehealth

The possible applications of Telehealth are broad. In remote and rural allied health, Telehealth is most often used as a service delivery tool, a professional development medium, and a supervision and support tool.

 

Service Provision

Examples of Telehealth applications in service provision include:

  • Observing a remote Allied Health Assistant working with a client in order to provide feedback and modification of the program.
  • Consulting with a specialist at another centre to seek a second opinion.
  • Preparing a discharge plan for a patient on discharge from a large regional hospital to a small remote hospital.
  • Providing clinical hand-over for management of a client on discharge from a metropolitan tertiary hospital to a rural/remote hospital.
  • Accessing specialist support in the management of client with complex care needs.
  • Reviewing a client’s progress between outreach visits.
  • Conducting an assessment or carrying out intervention.
  • Providing community education sessions to outreach sites.
  • Linking clients and Allied Health Professionals to specialist clinics in bigger centres (e.g. burns, amputee, neurology)
  • Supporting the assessment, prescription, fabrication, modification and review of specialised equipment for people with disabilities.

 

Continuing Professional Development

Videoconferencing (VC) is a great medium to access professional development, with many organisations now offering training via VC.

 

Supervision & Support

Telehealth can be fantastic way to build a relationship and communicate with supervisors, mentors or coaches. The article Telehealth: A Model for Clinical Supervision in Allied Health provides useful information when engaging in supervision and support relationships via Telehealth.

 

Telehealth & You

Think about Telehealth within your workplace:

  • Does your organisation access/offer any Telehealth programs?
  • Does your organisation have access to videoconferencing facilities?
  • Can videoconferencing facilities be accessed from anywhere else in the community?
  • Is training available to learn how to use the videoconferencing equipment?
  • What education and training is accessible by videoconferencing?
  • How is/can Telehealth be used as part of my job?
  • How can Telehealth enhance my delivery of services?

 

Useful Resources

Allied Health Assistants

Allied Health Assistants support the deliver of allied health services, under the direction of Allied Health Professionals. They may be have a generalist role, working with a number of allied health professionals such as occupational therapy, physiotherapy, podiatrists, dieticians and speech pathology, or they may be employed specifically to work with one occupational group.

Allied Health Assistants must work under the supervision of the relevant Allied Health Professional (i.e. tasks must be delegated to them by an Allied Health Professional). The level of supervision and monitoring will depend on the experience, skill and qualifications of the assistant and the practicalities of the work environment. Supervision may range from face to face daily interaction to less frequently and by telephone or video.

The scope of practice for assistants (what they can and can’t do) is guided by the employing organisational and professional associations/regulatory bodies.

 

Benefits of Allied Health Assistants

Allied Health Assistants have benefits to the clients (more contact time), the clinician (freeing up time for higher level clinical practice) and the local community in developing positions and career opportunities that may not otherwise be available.

In terms of workforce, Allied Health Assistants can facilitate a continuity of service with a stable workforce sector (Allied Health Professionals tend to come and go), opportunities to develop a local health workforce where for a number of reasons tertiary education is not an option, and providing employees with a ‘taste’ of what an Allied Health Professional does that may lead on to a career in an allied health field.

 

Skills and Qualification

In a remote and rural practice context you will likely encounter Allied Health Assistants with a range of skills and qualifications. Some have no formal qualifications; some will have a TAFE Certificate II, III, or IV in Allied Health Assisting, others may have qualifications and/or experience in areas such as enrolled nursing, aged care, community care, rehabilitation, etc. In remote and rural areas Allied Health Assistants most often receive their training in-house and on the job. The level of training and experience of the Allied Health Assistant will determines what roles they are able to undertake.

 

Allied Health Assistants & You

As an Allied Health Professional in a rural or remote area you will very likely be working with support staff, particularly Allied Health Assistants. If you are working with an Allied Health Assistant, think about:

  • What role and duties does the Allied Health Assistant/s undertake?
  • Does your organisation/professional association/regulatory body have guidelines for working with Allied Health Assistants?
  • How does working with Allied Health Assistants support your role?
  • How can you best support Allied Health Assistants working with you?
  • How do Allied Health Assistant change the way health services are delivered?

 

Useful Resources

  • Lin IB, Goodale BJ. Improving the supervision of therapy assistants in Western Australia: the Therapy Assistant Project (TAP). Rural and Remote Health, vol 6; 2006.
  • Goodale BJ, Spitz S, Beattie NJ, Lin IB. Training rural and remote therapy assistants in Western Australia. Rural and Remote Health, vol 7; 2007.
  • Allied Health Assistant Tools and Resources (Please vist WACHS for further information)
  • Rural and Remote Allied Health Competencies: Allied Health Assistants (Please vist WACHS for further information)
  • Aboriginal Allied Health Assistant Project (Please vist WACHS for further information).

Community Engagement

Community engagement is a philosophy that underpins remote and rural service delivery. Community engagement is one of a number of terms used to refer to the process of involving the community in the decision making about health services including health service planning, policy development, implementation of health services and evaluation of services.

The term community, within the philosophy of community engagement refers to people who either directly or indirectly use health services. In this sense community may include people who are currently use, or have used health services, carers of people receiving health care, consumer groups (who may share common experiences of health need), consumer organisations (such as advocacy, self-help groups), members of the community who may be future uses and community members who benefit from health care services.

The process of engagement facilitates community participation. This participation can occur at a number of levels including the local (community level), state/territory or national levels. At a community level consumers of services and local community members may be involved in service development (service planning), implementation and evaluation for health services within the local area. At a State / Territory and National level consumers of services and community members may be involved in broader policy development and service planning.

 

Benefits of Community Engagement

The potential benefits of engaging the community in health service delivery are plentiful for both the community and the Allied Health Professional. They may include:

  • Greater consumer understanding of health issues and local priorities
  • Improved consumer and community satisfaction
  • Greater community ownership and investment
  • More responsive health services
  • Greater accountability for public funds
  • The development of better quality services.

 

Engaging the Community

There are a range of strategies to involve consumers in health service decision making. Some of these include:

  • Consumer advisory committees
  • Consumer/community members on health system committees
  • Consultation about specific issues (which may be undertaken using methods such as focus groups and surveys).

In determining appropriate strategies to engage the community, particular consideration needs to be given to how to effectively include, and represent, the diversity of individuals and communities.

 

Community Engagement & You

  • How effectively do you engage the community in your practice?
  • How can you create opportunities for community participation?
  • How could community engagement impact your service delivery?

 

Useful Resources

Private Practice

Private health services are an important part of health care in rural and remote Australia. Private providers include private hospitals and individual private practices. It is important for both public and private Allied Health Professionals to understand the private health system and the types of clients able to access such services. 

 

Examples of Income Streams

 

Private Health Insurance

Individuals with ancillary private health insurance may be able to claim a portion of out of pocket expenses for private allied health services back from their health fund. Clients are only able to access a rebate from their health fund for nominated allied health services and if the Allied Health Professional holds a provider number with that particular health fund. Private Health Fund’s websites contain further information about obtaining a provider number.

 

Medicare

Currently there are Medicare Initiatives that allow for participating allied health professionals to claim items via Medicare such as:

The providing Allied Health Professional must be registered with Medicare, and meet provider eligibility requirements. All items require an initial referral from a GP or medical specialist. The Medicare Benefit Schedule Items by Allied Health Profession table available on the Health website provides a summary of all items.

Allied health services funded by other Commonwealth or State programs are not eligible for Medicare rebates, except where a subsection 19(2) exemption has been granted.

'Medicare and You’ is an eLearning program comprised of seven interactive modules on topics that health care professionals need to know when they commence Medicare billing.

 

Department of Veteran Affairs

DVA cardholders can access a wide range of allied health services at a determined fee. Cardholders are able to access allied health services provided by health care providers (including private allied health professionals) who have a provide number with DVA. For further visit the DVA website

 

Grants & Funding Support for Rural and Remote Private Practice

The National Rural and Remote Health Infrastructure Program (NRRHIP) aims to improve access to health services by providing funding to rural and remote communities where the lack of infrastructure is a barrier to the establishment of new, or the enhancement of existing health services. One of the project aims is to increase the range of privately insurable health services available to rural and remote Australia. Allied Health Professionals, who are providing privately insurable health services, and dentists in private practice, are eligible to apply.

 

Private Practice & You

  • What private allied health services are available in the community?
  • How can I ensure that clients/patients are provided a choice in terms of service providers?
  • How can the private and public allied health services work collaboratively?
  • What are the impacts of no private allied health services within a community? 

 

Useful Resources 

Sole Practice

Allied Health Professionals working in remote or rural communities may find themselves as the only provider (sole practitioner) of services from their discipline in that geographic area.

By definition, sole practitioners work independently. They are required to exercise independent professional judgment without ready face to face access to other Allied Health Professionals within the same discipline, and miss out on the much of the informal consultation, assistance, advice and networking available inherent to workplaces with larger teams.

Service provision for the sole practitioner in remote and rural settings often extends beyond the area of discipline specific skills and expertise into areas of community participation, health promotion and health education. See the SG page for more information. While this is often the case in remote and rural practice more broadly, it tends to be more pronounced in a sole practice setting.

In sole practice, service provision will often take place in multiple settings. This includes not only the practice site (e.g. one or a mixture of private practice, community health centres, rural hospital, outpatient clinics, GP practice), but also local schools, aged care centres, industry and commercial settings and in client homes.

Sole practitioners in remote and rural settings need the ability to:

  • Be able to understand and interpret community needs and have the initiative to be able to meet those needs, often in the absence of formalised support.
  • Work unsupervised and independently.
  • Work as part of a multidisciplinary team, often with team members widely dispersed and working in other geographic regions (See Team Practice).
  • Develop multidisciplinary skills in other disciplines where there are no other Allied Health Professionals accessible by the client.
  • Within your Scope of Practice, develop skills in the use of information and communication technology to facilitate multidisciplinary team care and to access professional and peer support.
  • Build multidisciplinary networks to provide professional support outside normal working environment (e.g. access to specialist skills in your own discipline, access to skills in other professions, mentoring and peer support). Refer to the Networking and Mentoring pages for more information.
  • Develop high level communication and interpretive skills.
  • Build skills in working in cross-cultural environment.
  • Sole practitioners in remote and rural settings will need to develop strong professional skills, such as Confidentiality & Professional Boundaries, as well as Leadership & Management, as they are often responsible for the management of their department. Line management for the position will often be the responsibility of a health profession from another discipline (nursing or medical, non-health professional, or occasionally another allied health profession) with potentially limited understanding of the skills and competencies held by the sole practitioner. The potentially rocky path of a sole practitioner can be made easier with appropriate management support.
  • Develop skills in counselling, applied research, primary and public health care.
  • Manage stress, prioritise workload and manage time. 

 

Benefits of Sole Practice

For the sole practitioner the ability to be alone in the analysis, planning, submission, preparation, implementation and evaluation of development in their specific services can be both a challenge and a reward.

The achievement of advanced skills levels across a range of clinical and non-clinical areas is rewarding. Remote and rural sole practitioners may be on a higher pay scale within state awards. Check with the relevant jurisdiction if this applies to you.

Sole allied health practitioners in remote and rural communities holds a privileged position in remote and small rural communities. You will be called on to be involved in community activities unrelated to your particular discipline skills. Whilst issues relating to confidentiality, defining boundaries between professional, social and family life in small communities, time management can increase stress levels, the rewards for becoming a community advocate, holding a position of privilege and making a contribution to building community capacity cannot be underestimated.

 

Sole Practice & You

Think about your practice in a remote or rural setting:

  • Are you working as a sole practitioner, the only practitioner in your discipline in your geographic area?
  • What professional, peer and social support networks have you built? Do you need to further develop these networks?
  • Are your required to undertake roles beyond that of your particular discipline skills? (e.g. management (including budgeting), community capacity building, community needs analysis, teaching and training, research, marketing)? Do you have the appropriate training and do you feel competent and confident in undertaking these roles?
  • Where can you go to obtain additional training in the skills that you have identified you need for your role? 

 

Useful Resources

Many of the pages within this resource will provide further information and links for the sole practitioner. In particular refer to the Skills & Competencies pages and the Networking page.

Team Practice

Working as a team in the delivery of health services is a cornerstone of primary health care and one of the greatest benefits of working in a remote and rural context. Health teams are composed of members from different healthcare professions with specialised skills and expertise, who communicate and collaborate to plan and provide quality health services.

 

Models of Team Practice

Collaborative team practice can be articulated in a number of ways. It is important to understand the different models of team practice and the attributes and functions attached to each.

Multidisciplinary approaches utilise the skills and experience of individuals from different disciplines, with each discipline approaching the patient from their own perspective. Each team member conducted separate assessment, planning and provision with varying degrees of coordination. The team, directly or indirection, shares information regarding the patient and discuss future directions for patient care, and consequently relies on a good communication system (e.g. team meetings, case conferences etc). Essentially health professionals work in conjuction with each other, but act autonomously. This is also called multiprofessional practice.

Interdisciplinary approaches expand the multidisciplinary team through collaborative communication (rather then shared communication) and interdependent practice. Members contribute their own profession specific expertise, but collaborate to interpret findings and develop a care plan. Team members negotiate priorities and agree by consensus. The analogy of the hand is appropriate: individual digits of differing ability, function and dexterity work together to achieve more than the sum of the individual fingers (Crawford and Price, 2003). This is also called interprofessional practice.

For an example of an interprofessional approach, read the article Team Working: Palliative Care as a Model of Interprofessional Practice (Crawford & Price, 2003).

Transdisciplinary team approaches are the result of the evolution of the team approach. The transdisciplinary team model values the knowledge and skill of team members. Members of the transdisciplinary team share knowledge, skills, and responsibilities across traditional disciplinary boundaries in assessment, diagnosis, planning and implementation. Transdisciplinary teamwork involves a certain amount of boundary blurring between disciplines and implies cross-training and flexibility in accomplishing tasks. Transdisciplinary practice becomes especially relevant in the remote and rural context, where health professionals need to be more flexible about their roles and responsibilities.

 

Team Practice & You

  • What types of health teams do you participate in? Who are the members of the team? Think about examples of multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary teams.
  • How can you enhance your team practice in the provision of services to patients and the community?
  • What skills do you need to develop to support enhanced team practice?

 

Useful Resources

Community Based Rehabilitation

Community Based Rehabilitation, or CBR, is becoming increasingly recognised as an appropriate model of service delivery to provide effective rehabilitation and therapy services to rural and remote communities, with particular relevance for remote and rural Indigenous communities.

In simple terms, CBR refers to the delivery of basic services to disabled people within their community, including all services necessary to improve the participation and functioning in daily activity. More broadly, the UNESCO and WHO define CBR, as:

A strategy within community development for rehabilitation, equalization of opportunities, and social inclusion for all children and adults with disabilities. CBR is implemented through the combined efforts of people with disabilities themselves, their families and communities, and appropriate health, education, vocation and social services.

The basic concept of CBR centres on decentralising responsibility and resources, both human and financial, to community level organisations. CBR models are based on a collaborative relationship between the Allied Health Professional, Community Based Workers and the broader community.

While traditional rehabilitation frameworks tend to be based on a medical model CBR is built on a social, community focused, frameworks. This community orientation is designed to address barriers (medical, social and cultural) that affect a person’s ability to engage in activities and participate in the community, and build the capacity of remote and rural communities. 

 

Benefits of Community Based Rehabilitation

CBR has many benefits for both the clients and the clinician, particularly in remote and rural practice settings. For communities, CBR increases the accessibility of rehabilitation and therapy services for clients. These models increase the services available to people living in rural and remote areas and allow clients to stay in their communities when receiving therapy services.

Additionally, the community development orientation of CBR builds on community capacity and both the individual and community level. At the individual level, CBR models facilitate the training and employment of Community Based Workers, increasing the skills, income, and employability of local community members. At a community level the collaborative relationship between communities and health services empowers communities and develops leadership.

For the clinician, CBR increases the service coverage that can be achieved. It also reduces the frequency of travel to communities, and as a consequence saves time and money. 

 

Community Based Rehabilitation & You

Does your organisation work with CBR models? If so, think about:

  • How does CBR change the way services are delivered?
  • How does CBR change the relationship between Allied Health Professionals, communities and clients?
  • How can CBR enhance your delivery of services? 

 

Useful Resources

  • Kuipers P, Allen O. Preliminary guidelines for the implementation of Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) approaches in rural, remote and Indigenous communities in Australia. Rural and Remote Health, vol 4; 2004. Available at: http://www.rrh.org.au.
  • Curry R. Allied Health Therapy Services in Aged and Disability Care in Remote Aboriginal Communities of the Northern Territory: A Framework for Quality Service Provision. Top End Division of General Practice. Darwin; 1999.
  • Cumaiyi, C. Glynn, R. Community Based Rehabilitation: Relevance for Indigenous Australians in Remote Areas, an investigation. The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust of Australia; 1999.
  • Glynn R, Mattiazzo V, Lowell A, Baker L, Lynch A, Wanatjura E. Developing Partnerships between Community Based Workers and Visiting Workers for the Delivery of Aged and Disability Services in Remote Indigenous Communities. Territory Health Service. Darwin; 1999.
  • Aboriginal Allied Health Assistant Project (WACHS).